Phyllotaxis, the distribution of organs such as leaves and flowers on their support, is a key attribute of plant architecture. The geometric regularity of phyllotaxis has attracted multidisciplinary interest for centuries, resulting in an understanding of the patterns in the model plants Arabidopsis and tomato down to the molecular level. Nevertheless, the iconic example of phyllotaxis, the arrangement of individual florets into spirals in the heads of the daisy family of plants (Asteraceae), has not been fully explained. We integrate experimental data and computational models to explain phyllotaxis in Gerbera hybrida. We show that phyllotactic patterning in gerbera is governed by changes in the size of the morphogenetically active zone coordinated with the growth of the head. The dynamics of these changes divides the patterning process into three phases: the development of an approximately circular pattern with a Fibonacci number of primordia near the head rim, its gradual transition to a zigzag pattern, and the development of a spiral pattern that fills the head on the template of this zigzag pattern. Fibonacci spiral numbers arise due to the intercalary insertion and lateral displacement of incipient primordia in the first phase. Our results demonstrate the essential role of the growth and active zone dynamics in the patterning of flower heads.
View the teaser video here (13.2 MB) or at the Viikki Plant Science Centre
Download the paper from the publisher's site or from here.
Download the supporting information from the publisher's site or from here.
Download Movie 1 here -- Simulation of early bract patterning (up to 34 primordia) (MP4, 2.1 MB)
Download Movie 2 here -- Simulation of the patterning of bract and floret primordia on an expanding disk (MP4, 3.7 MB)
Download Movie 3 here -- Construction of the data-driven growing receptacle model (MP4, 1.1 MB)
Download Movie 4 here -- Simulation of phyllotactic patterning in gerbera heads on a growing receptacle - side view (MP4, 10.1 MB)
Download Movie 5 here -- Simulation of phyllotactic patterning in gerbera heads on a growing receptacle - top view (MP4, 14.4 MB)
Download Movie 6 here -- A variant of phyllotactic patterning in gerbera heads (Movie 5) (MP4, 14.4 MB)
Download Movie 7 here -- Simulation of phyllotactic patterning in a gerbera head with realistically modeled floret primordia (MP4, 3.6 MB)
Download Model 1 here (TGZ archive, 8.2 MB)
Download Model 2 here (TGZ archive, 8.2 MB)
Download Model 3 here (TGZ archive, 16 MB)
You will need VLAB to run the models. They were tested using VLAB verison 4.5.1-3520 on macOS 10.13 (High Sierra).