Animation of Plant Development

Przemyslaw Prusinkiewicz¹, Mark Hammel¹, and Eric Mjolsness²

¹Department of Computer Science
University of Calgary
Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4
e-mail: pwp|

²Department of Computer Science
Yale University
New Haven, CT 06520-2158


This paper introduces a combined discrete/continuous model of plant development that integrates L-system-style productions and differential equations. The model is suitable for animating simulated developmental processes in a manner resembling time-lapse photography. The proposed technique is illustrated using several developmental models, including the flowering plants Campanula rapunculoides, Lychnis coronaria, and Hieracium umbellatum.

Keywords: animation through simulation, realistic image synthesis, modeling of plants, combined discrete/continuous simulation, L-system, piecewise-continuous differential equation.


Przemyslaw Prusinkiewicz, Mark Hammel, and Eric Mjolsness. Animation of Plant Development. Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 93 (Anaheim, California, August 1--6, 1993), In Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, 1993, ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 351-360.

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